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How can I learn more?

There is a lot of information and opinions available online, but it can be hard to find truth among contradicting sources, or make sense of the jumble. On this page, we have compiled a collection of academic, peer-reviewed journal articles, and other sources we trust, to get you started on your journey of self education. 

Research and Data

Social Orphanhood in Russia: Historical Background, Present and Perspective

WCES 2014 | Roza A Valeeva and Aidar M Kalimullin

In the last twenty years Russia is witnessing the growth in the number of children without parental care (the result of the economic crisis, social, economic and political instability in the country, transition of the state social system, loss or reduction of human and spiritual values in families, family crisis. An analysis of the national situation has revealed the number of factors leading to social orphanhood meaning children having biological parents not engaged in raising and taking care of them. The paper reveals historical roots of orphanhood in Russia (World War I, Civil war, Second World War). Modern Russia experiences
the third wave of child abandonment. The article describes the main characteristics of child abandonment in Russia, analyses causes of social ophanhood phenomenon (rejection of a new born child in the maternity ward, a force removal of children from their families because of parental rights deprivation on the reason of parents’ alcoholism, drug addiction, asocial way of life, disability; violence against women and children). Among the main causes the family crisis is determined...

Philanthropy in Russia

Philanthropy for Social Justice and Peace 2018 | Caroline Hartnell

The report provides an overview of the current state of philanthropy in Russia, based on conversations with people who have been working to promote, support or strengthen different areas of philanthropy. Our aim is to shine a light on new ideas and innovations, and the implications of these for the future role of philanthropy. We hope this will enable us to better address the questions: what is the role and purpose of philanthropy and how do we build a supportive ecosystem for it?

The Status of Women in Russian Society | Conference Report

Kennan Institute 2020 | Nina Rozhanovskaya & Victoria Pardini

More than 70 people, about 60 percent based in Russia, attended the conference, and each of the six virtual roundtables brought together between 35 and 45 participants. Four kickoff speakers, one Western expert and three Russian academics and practitioners, began each discussion with introductory remarks before opening the floor to thoughts, observations, and questions. This structure allowed participants to present firsthand experiences, explore the gap between research and practice, compare Russian and Western academic perspectives, and establish new contacts between scholars of women’s issues and people involved in the subject matter on the ground. Adherence to the Chatham House Rule ensured a frank and uncensored conversation, and the Zoom chat and breakout rooms created an opportunity for less formal exchanges.


This report summarizes the discussions and lists the major takeaway points of the three conference days. It also outlines how the conversation on these important topics can continue in the form of events and publications at the Kennan Institute and beyond. Because of the Chatham House Rule, we omit the names of speakers and commentators.

Expanding Access to Financing For MSMEs in Russia by Leveraging Innovative Financial Solutions

The World Bank 2017 | Eva Gutierrez, Elena Klepikova, and Katerina Levitanskaya

In Russia, the contribution of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs)1 to the economy is still considerably lower than in other countries. As of March 2019, there were 6.2 million SMEs in Russia employing 15.8 million people. Ninety-five percent of SMEs were micro enterprises, accounting for 47 percent of the SME employment. SMEs account for 22 percent of Russia’s GDP and 25 percent of total employment. Even though the number of SMEs has been growing, their contribution to the economy is still below most of the BRICs countries and considerably lower than in developed economies. In the OECD group, SMEs account for 50 to 60 percent of GDP, and 60 percent of total employment.


SME development is important to the Russian economy to enable stronger economic growth and improve productivity. In the developed economies, SMEs are at the core of the private sector, contributing to job creation and growth. Russia has a high presence of State-Owned Enterprises, which tend to be less productive than private firms; therefore, developing the SME sector has the potential to increase productivity. Creating conditions for SMEs to develop and grow is crucial for the Russian economy to expand and become more productive. Access to finance is critical for the growth of SMEs as it allows firms to innovate, improve efficiency, expand to new markets, and create new jobs.

Barriers Everywhere: Lack of Accessibility for People with Disabilities in Russia

Human Rights Watch 2013 

There are at least 13 million people with disabilities in Russia today. People who use wheelchairs or crutches; people with cerebral palsy; people who are blind or have low vision; people who are deaf or hard of hearing; people with intellectual or developmental disabilities like Down’s syndrome or autism, people with mental health problems, and those with multiple disabilities live in every major city, town, and rural area. While Russia has taken some important steps in recent years to advance protections of the rights of people with disabilities, this report finds that the government has much more to do to ensure the right to an accessible environment for people with disabilities.

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